Posadzka & uliczki

powierzchnie podłogowe i sposoby aleja

Locomotion is an important action for all cows. In grass-based systems, cows may have to walk a long distance to the parlour and so they keep reasonably fit. Although this is limited in loose-housed systems, there is still a significant amount of locomotion associated with social and other activities.


Floor surfaces

Floor quality or condition in cattle housing systems is an important environmental factor and significantly affects performance. A poor floor will lead to an increase in leg injuries and claw disorders and a higher incidence of sole ulcers on the cow’s rear lateral claws. This is due to the pressure involved in walking or avoiding conflict, and this is often exacerbated by the abrasive nature of the concrete often used in alley ways. An ideal floor is clean and comfortable for cows to walk on, and is even and slip-resistant without being too abrasive to hooves. Floors must be simple to construct, durable and easy to manage and maintain. All concrete should be grooved to make it less slippery. Before placing cows on freshly poured and grooved concrete. Pamiętaj, aby wygładzić szorstkie i ostre krawędzie i szorstkich łatek, aby zapobiec urazom kopyt.

Concrete has long been the most common material for floors in confined animal systems, but is not very animal-friendly as it enhances the physical effects of load bearing on the feet; the un­yielding nature of the floor irritates the corium and increases blood flow causing accelerated horn growth. A softer, more resilient material like rubber might be a future alternative as it can be added on top of concrete making the surface less abrasive to hooves and providing more friction. The floor becomes less slippery and more cushioned, allowing the claws to sink into the surface. Rubber is documented to allow cows a longer stride and lower stride frequency, and is considered to reduce the risk of slipping to a greater extent than concrete or asphalt. A less slippery surface reduces injuries and increases mobility to feed, water and resting areas. It is well documented that, given a choice (e.g. Telezhenko et al, 2006), cows often prefer to stand on a rubber surface rather than concrete. Consider installing rubber mats to improve the daily routine of eating, drinking, walking and resting. In barns with worn out concrete, the addition of rubber covering can help prevent hoof problems. A rubber surface also encourages oestrus activity to be displayed as cows feel more comfortable, and therefore fertility is enhanced.

If you notice cows walking very slowly or timidly with rear feet splayed wide, it could be a sign of poor traction. Ślady poślizgu to kolejna wskazówka, że ​​podłoga jest prawdopodobnie śliska. Jednak, rubber can also result in an overgrowth of the claws due to its low abrasion. Ta została zakwestionowana w innych badaniach, co wskazuje, że może być zmniejszona overwear, but so too is overgrowth and that the net growth rate on rubber mats does not exceed that on concrete. In order to make sure overgrowth does not occur, hooves should be checked regularly and hoof trimming routines followed as necessary.

Z desek zwykle pobyt czystsze niż podłóg twardych bez dodatkowej pracy potrzebnej do usunięcia uwięzić w czterech ścianach, but these are documented to cause more hoof damage. Poor drainage of slatted floors can occur when cow traffic is too low or when there is too much bedding material or food on the floor. Scrapers on top of the slatted floor improve hygiene.

The cleanliness of solid floors can be improved by sloping, with frequent scraping or flushing. The slope should have a maximum incline of 1.5 stopni, umieszczony w połowie alei i podłużnie w kierunku kanału gnoju. The liquids can drain easily from sloped floors, which results in drier surfaces.

Jedną z wad jest to, że odchody będą rozłożone na tej suchej nawierzchni przez zgarniacz obornika, dlatego niektórzy hodowcy wolą non nachyloną powierzchnię w połączeniu z systemem zgarniacza. Solid floors have the advantage of being more natural and comfortable for cows to walk on. Using a lot of bedding is another way of keeping the floor and hooves drier, as bedding kicked out of cubicles will absorb some of the moisture from the floor and can then be scraped away. It also provides a soft cushion for animals to stand on with their rear feet when they don’t stand fully in the cubicle. The hygiene of barn floors has a considerable impact on animal health, Problem floors impact the hoof, the udder and milk quality. Floor design is therefore very important for long-term, consistently profitable, milk production. The floor is the part of the barn with which the animals are in closest contact.

sposoby Alley

Alley ways should be wide enough to maintain good cow flow around the barn and to encourage integration of new members to the herd. Wider alley ways also provide a greater area for slurry accumulation and reduce the risk of exposure.